The PRINCE Model

A new framework for monitoring the environmental impacts linked to Swedish consumption – both inside and chain to 59 product groups or sectors. They reflect the Eurostat NACE Rev. 2 classification given to the business providing a service directly to the final consumer; or, in the case of goods, the last business in the supply chain before the goods reach the final consumer.

The PRINCE research project developed ways to quantify the different pressures that Swedish consumption puts on the natural world, both at home and around the globe.


First developed in 2018 the PRINCE model is an easily updated monitoring framework that enables policymakers to set trackable goals for sustainable consumption in Sweden. 

Along the way new indicators for environmental pressures are being investigated – specifically for fish, hazardous chemicals and biodiversity.

The PRINCE indicator results are generated using a tailor-made model that tracks flows of commodities through the global economy, and estimates the environmental pressures resulting from consumption and production in 44 countries and 5 aggregate “rest of” world regions. The model then allocates those pressures to 59 product groups of goods and services consumed in Sweden and to different types of consumption: by the public sector, by private citizens, and in the form of capital investments. 

By linking Swedish national input-output tables (which represent monetary flows between industrial sectors) to a well-recognized multiregional input-output (MRIO) model, EXIOBASE the model makes it possible to trace and quantify flows beyond Sweden’s borders and back along its international supply chains.

By using Sweden-specific national input-output tables the PRINCE model ensures the highest levels of statistical correctness for Swedish data, and provides more timely updates to indicator results.

PRINCE Product Groups

To construct consumption-based macro-indicators, PRINCE reallocates emissions and other environmental pressures along the global value chain to 59 product groups or sectors. They reflect the Eurostat NACE Rev. 2 classification given to the business providing a service directly to the final consumer; or, in the case of goods, the last business in the supply chain before the goods reach the final consumer.

The table below shows the English and Swedish names of the product groups used in PRINCE results, the NACE classifications they represent, and some explanations about what they include. As the PRINCE model combines data from EXIOBASE3 and Swedish national accounts, it was necessary to harmonize the lists of product groups used in the two data sets, resulting in the final list of 59.

Learn more about product groups and how to unerstand the results.

Rev. 2 code(s)
PRINCE short namesPRINCE Swedish namesExplanation
A01Agricultural productsJordbrukIncludes products of agriculture and hunting (including some food products)
A02Forestry productsSkogsbrukIncludes products of forestry, logging and related services
A03Fish productsFiske och vattenbrukFish and other fishing products; aquaculture products; support services to fishing
BMining and extraction productsUtvinning av mineralerIncludes products of mining, quarrying and other types of extraction of minerals, including ores, coal, oil and gas; and supporting activities
C10–12Food, beverages and tobaccoLivsmedel, dryck, tobakIncludes food products, beverages and tobacco products
C13–15TextilesTextil kläder läderTextiles, wearing apparel and leather products
C16Wood productsTrävarorWood and products of wood and cork, except furniture; articles of straw and plaiting materials
C17PaperPappers och pappersvarutillverkningPaper and paper products
C18PrintingGrafisk produktionPrinting and recording services
C19Refined petroleum productsStenkol och petroleumprodukterIncludes refined petroleum-based oils and coke (NB emissions from burning fossil fuels are allocated to “Household direct” and other product groups, depending on their use)
C20–21Chemical and pharmaceutical productsKemiska produkter; LäkemedelChemicals and pharmaceutical products (includes fertilizers, paints, cleaning and beauty products etc.)
C22Rubber and plastic productsGummi- o plastvarorRubber and plastic products
C23Non-metallic mineral productsGlas porslin cementIncludes glass, cement, ceramics products, bricks, cut stone, flagstones etc.
C24Steel and metal productsStål och metallframställningIncludes cast metals, wire, fittings, tubes, pipes
C25Fabricated metal productsTillv av metallvaror, försvarsindustriIncludes structural products, tanks and boilers, cutlery, tools, weapons
C26Electronic productsDatorer; InstrumentIncludes computers; telephones, cameras and other consumer electronics; instruments; electronic and optical media
C27Electrical equipmentElapparaturIncludes electric motors, cables and wiring; domestic appliances; batteries and lighting equipment
C28Other machinery and equipmentTillv av övriga maskinerIncludes office machinery and equipment, ovens and furnaces, construction and mining vehicles and equipment, power tools, other machinery and equipment
C29Motor vehiclesMotorfordonIncludes motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers; electrical and electronic equipment for motor vehicles
C30Other transport equipmentTillv av andra transportmedelIncludes boats, aircraft, motorcycles, bicycles, military fighting vehicles, trains
C31­–32Furniture and other manufactured goodsTillv möbler etcIncludes furniture, toys, sports goods, jewellery, musical instruments, medical and dental equipment
C33Machinery repair and installation servicesÖ tillv ej medicinsk; Medicinsk utrustn; Reparation av maskinRepair and installation of machinery and equipment
D35Electricity, gas and heatel, gas och värmeIncludes production and distribution of electricity, gas, steam and air-conditioning
E36Water supplyVattenförsörjningWater collection, treatment and supply services
E37–39Sewerage and waste managementAvloppsrening, avfall, återvinningSewerage; waste collection, treatment and disposal activities; materials recovery; remediation activities and other waste management services
FConstruction and civil engineeringBygg och anläggningIncludes construction of residential and non-residential buildings; infrastructure and utility projects
G45–47Wholesale and retailHandelWholesale and retail trade, and vehicle repair services (NB does not include emissions linked to the products sold or repaired)
H49Rail and road transportLandtransporter; godstrafik, tåg, taxiIncludes passenger and freight transport services by rail and road; transport via pipelines; taxi services
H50Water transportSjötransportIncludes sea, coastal and inland water transport services
H51Air transportLufttransportIncludes passenger and freight air transport services; space transport
H52–53Warehousing and delivery servicesSpedition; Post och bud, lagerhållningIncludes warehousing, storage and cargo handling services; support services for transportation; postal and courier services
IHospitality and food servicesHotell; RestaurangHospitality, tourism, short-term lodging, food and drink services
J58PublishingFörlagsverksamhetPublishing services
J59_60MediaMediaIncludes motion picture, video and television programme production services, sound recording and music publishing; programming and broadcasting services
J61TelecommunicationsTelekommunikationTelecommunications services
J62_63IT servicesIT-tjänsterComputer programming, consultancy and related services; information services
K64Financial servicesBanker, fonder mmIncludes banking and other financial services, except insurance and pension funds
K65Insurance and pension servicesFörsäkring o pensionIncludes insurance, reinsurance and pension funding services, except compulsory social security
K66Services auxiliary to financeStödtjänster till finansIncludes services auxiliary to financial services and insurance services
L68Real estateFastighetsverksamhetIncludes buying and selling, renting and operating of own or leased properties; real estate agency and management services
M69–70Legal, accounting and management servicesJuridisk ekonomi tjänster; HK, PR o rådgivningIncludes legal and accounting services; services of head offices; management consultancy services
M71–72Architecture, engineering, researchArkitekt tekniska tjänster; FOUIncludes architectural and engineering services, industrial design, geophysical surveying, natural and social science research
M73MarketingReklam, marknadsföreingIncludes advertising, marketing, public relations research services
M74–75Other professional servicesDesign, foto, tolk; VeterinärIncludes design, photographic and other services; veterinary services
N77Rental and leasingUthyrning o leasingRental and leasing services (excluding real estate)
N78Employment servicesBemanning mmEmployment services
N79Travel servicesResetjänsterIncludes travel agencies, tour operators and other reservation services and related services
N80–82Other business servicesBevakning; Fastighetsservice; Kontorstjänster; SamhallIncludes security and investigation services; services to buildings and landscape; office administration, office support and other business support services
O84Public services and defenceOffentlig förvaltningIncludes public administration and defence services; social security services
P85Education servicesUtbildningIncludes schools, sports and cultural education services
Q86Health careHälso- och sjukvårdIncludes hospitals and clinics, dental services
Q87–88Social work and social careVård, omsorg m boende; Öppna sociala insatsIncludes residential and non-residential care and social assistance services
R90–92Cultural and entertainment servicesKultur, bibliotek mmIncludes creative, arts and entertainment services; libraries, archives, museums; gambling and betting services
R93Sport and recreation servicesSport, fritid, nöjeSporting services and amusement and recreation services
S94Membership organizationsMedlemsorganisationerIncludes services furnished by membership organizations, including religious and political organizations, trade unions
S95Consumer repair servicesRep av konsumentprodukterRepair services for computers and personal and household goods
S96Other personal servicesÖ konsumenttjänsterIncludes miscellaneous services such as laundry, hairdressing and beauty services, health and well-being services, funeral services
T–UOther servicesFörvärvsarbete i hushåll, ambassaderIncludes households as employers; activities of extraterritorial organizations and embassies
Additional category
(not in NACE system)
Household direct (emissions) Direkt miljöpåverkan från hushållIncludes emissions directly generated by households, or resource use directly by households; e.g. emissions from use of fuels for private cars or domestic heating, or use of treated water

Identifying and locating environmental pressures tied to Swedish consumption

EXIOBASE already includes many environmental “extensions” – data on the environmental pressures associated with different industries in different countries and regions – which are the foundation for generating consumption-based environmental indicators.

Part of the work under PRINCE has been to investigate which EXIOBASE extensions would be suitable for following up Sweden’s Generational Goal, and to develop new extensions for types of environmental pressure not yet included in EXIOBASE.

As well as allocating consumption-based pressures to product groups and consumption types, the PRINCE model also shows where in the world the environmental pressures due to production occurred: in Sweden or in one of 43 other individual countries or 5 aggregated regions.

The MRIO modelling means that it is possible to estimate where in the world the pressures associated with Swedish consumption occur. For example, emissions due to phosphate mining may occur in one country, further emissions due to fertilizer production from those phosphates in another, and a share of those due to fruit production in yet another country; and all could be attributed to the product group Food products if the fruit was eventually bought in Sweden.

The PRINCE results are presented for 44 individual countries and 5 aggregated regions.


South Africa

Rest of Africa: Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Reunion, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, St. Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Western Sahara, Zambia, Zanzibar, Zimbabwe


Brazil, Canada, Mexico, United States

Rest of: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Bonaire, St Eustatius and Saba, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Curaçao, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), French Guiana, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Sint Maarten (Dutch part), St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Pierre and Miquelon, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Uruguay, Venezuela, British Virgin Islands, Virgin islands (US)


Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan

Rest of Asia and Pacific: Afghanistan, American Samoa, Antarctica, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Bouvet Island, British Antarctic Territories, British Indian Ocean Territory, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Georgia, Guam, Heard and McDonald Islands, Hong Kong SAR, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, North Korea, Kyrgyz Republic, Lao PDR, Macao SAR, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Pitcairn, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, USA minor outlying islands, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis and Futuna Islands


Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom

Rest of Europe: Albania, Andorra, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Channel Islands, Faeroe Islands, Gibraltar, Iceland, Isle of Man, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, FYR, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino, Serbia, Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands, Ukraine, Vatican City


Cyprus, Turkey

Rest of Middle East: Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen

An easily updated model

Because the national and MRIO data are linked in a relatively simple way, the model can be easily updated when either new national statistics or new EXIOBASE data becomes available. This makes it possible to produce time-series of comparable data to monitor progress towards the Generational Goal.

Time-series data from the PRINCE model on greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutant emissions and material flows for 2008–2014 are now available for download in Microsoft Excel format.

Other countries can adopt the PRINCE method to create a model that helps track environmental policy objectives relating to impacts from national consumption. To learn how get in contact with us!